Governance refers to the process through which decisions are taken and implemented especially by public institutions at the national and local levels. Good governance describes a decision-making system that is based on the open government principles:transparency, responsibility, accountability, participation, and responsiveness to the needs of the people. Citizen participation is a key element of a good governance system. It provides private individuals and groups the opportunity to inform, influence, monitor and evaluate public decisions, processes, and actions. ActionAid works to strengthen the bond between citizen participation and institutional accountability and improve the quality and sustainability of democratic societies. Institutional accountability Accountability ensures that the effectiveness of public decisions is subject to oversight, particularly by citizens. Institutional accountability is a form of social accountability whereby citizens demand accountability from government institutions and representatives. ActionAid works to improve institutional accountability and transparency through civic monitoring and capacity building of institutions for the adoption of more open and inclusive information sharing systems, and decision-making processes and procedures. Citizen participationThe development and implementation of public policies is based on the active participation of citizens and communities. Strengthening citizen participation means returning them to the centre of the political discourse and giving them the power to recognize and promote their own needs and rights.ActionAid works with different stakeholders to promote spaces for the active participation of citizens. It focuses on improving rights awareness and empower individuals and groups so that they are able to advocate for the respect of their rights.