Trust – Muslim Women’s Rights

Tackling Under-Reporting and Under-Recording of Hate Speech and Hate Crimes Against Muslim Women

Violence against migrant women
Women’s Rights


European Commission


Law enforcement agencies (Police and Carabinieri), Local authorities, Civil Society Organizations

Objective of the project

We want to increase the reporting and recording of hate speech and hate crimes against Muslim women in Italy.

Abstract of the project

TRUST aims to deal with the reasons behind under-reporting and under-recording by developing a participatory dialogue between representatives of law enforcement agencies, local authorities, CSOs practitioners and community leaders of vulnerable migrant communities. The project seeks to:

  • Map the different typologies of discrimination, violence and hate crime against Muslim women in Italy, including intersectionalities between racism and other forms of prejudice;
  • Define the causes behind the phenomena of under-reporting and under-recording of hate crimes and hate speech targeting Muslim women in Italy;
  • Promote and foster the dialogue between different stakeholders to identify common solutions to tackle the issues of under-reporting and recording;
  • Strengthen an effective response mechanism for facilitating reporting and recording of discrimination and crimes against Muslim women

Context analysis

According to recent studies, 65% of Muslims living in Italy have been victims of violence, discrimination or prejudice (L’Islam Italiano – F. Ciocca, 2019). Islamophobia is a form of discrimination that affects Muslim women disproportionately, due to its intersection with misogyny and sexism.

Under-reporting and under-recording of cases of hate crime and hate speech against the Muslim community are an issue in Europe, but particularly in Italy: in 2019, 1.119 hate crimes were recorded by the Italian police, a figure that is twice that of 2015 but that is substantially low if compared with the number of cases recorded in 2019 in other European major countries. Of those 1.119 cases, 805 have been motivated by racism and xenophobia.

Milano, Metropolitan City of Milan, Italy

The project is implemented throughout Italy with online and offline activities.

Implementation Period

01/02/2022 - 31/01/2024



  • 20 Muslim women interviewed (10 from first generation and 10 from second generation)
  • 30 stakeholders’ representatives (public officials, CSO representatives, community leaders) attend a focus group discussion
  • 15 from public authorities, 15 from CSOs, 15 from Muslim community members and leaders involved in collaborative workshops
  • 65 practitioners become trainers of trainers: 30 representatives of public authorities, 20 Muslim community members (of which at least 10 women), and 15 CSOs practitioners
  • 100 participants to the final event


  • Members of the Muslim community
  • Practitioners in the law enforcement agencies and local authorities

Project Strategy


  • Conduct a multi-dimensional analysis to identify the main root causes of underreporting by victims of discrimination
  • Organize 4 collaborative workshops to bring together members of the LEAs, CSOs and Muslim communities to provide a collaborative assessment of existing policies and practices, in order to identify failure, gaps, barriers and constraints 
  • Develop  and pilot an action plan proposing concrete solutions to address gaps and barriers.
  • Develop training modules – one for practitioners and one for members of the Muslim community.


  • 1 action plan drafted
  • 1 toolkit with training materials developed
  • 1 communication handbook published
  • 4 quarterly newsletters disseminated
  • 1 Validated Policy Brief drafted
  • 1 European Final Event organized


  • Members of Muslim communities in Italy, and especially women, feel more confident and able to access support and report cases of hate crime and hate speech.
  • Practitioners in different sectors are able to identify the challenges and barriers faced by Muslim women and support them in accessing services and protection. 


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